ALL BABIES ARE BORN MUSICAL GENIUSES, most stop being one when they grow up. Music, like language and laughter is one of those things that make us human. And it goes far beyond just white noise or baby sleep music.
Importance of music from an evolutionary standpoint is hotly debated, but most people agree that better musical abilities correlate with longevity, happiness and well-being. In this article, we’ll explore what you can do to help your baby hone this innate talent.
Baby Development: Sense of Sound
First, let’s understand the auditory world from your baby’s point of view.
Did you know?
Your baby starts hearing as early as 16 weeks into pregnancy. Studies have demonstrated that the fetus can respond to sounds at 19 weeks [ref1].
She can’t see the world for another 20 weeks, but she already senses the hustle-bustle. But hearing, does not necessarily mean, listening.
It’s hard to tell what the fetus perceives exactly in this early stage of development. It’s like imagining how a rose would smell by listening to your friend’s description about it.
Womb effect: Sounds different from the outside
We can only guess based on the physics of the environment and the studies on fetal response to sound.
Here’s what we know. The womb is an aquatic environment. The next time you go swimming, notice how things sound different underwater.
So the sounds of the outside world go through a natural low pass filter.
Did you know?
How does a low pass filter change things? Imagine you were listening to a Guns N’ Roses song. Your baby would definitely hear the drums and the bass guitar. But that epic riff from Slash on the leads, not so much.
Moreover, since the treble is more attenuated and hence less often heard, the neural pathways for perceiving treble develop later.
How does it sound in the womb?
Let’s listen to some audio clips to get a better sense of the difference the womb makes. Here’s a clip of a popular song and how it would sound to your normally –
Here’s what it sounds like after the low pass filter effect of the womb –
So this is what you would actually hear in the womb (note the whoosh of the fluids)
Did you know?
The womb is actually a pretty noisy place. There are sounds of blood running through the vessels and the movement of stomach and intestines. The sounds can reach a level of about 90 dB (sound of a lawn mower).
Another example with the famous song from “Queen”
Outside the womb:
After womb low pass filter effect:
What your baby actually hears in the womb:
Mother’s voice almost unchanged
In stark contrast to external sounds, the baby in the womb can hear the mother’s sounds almost unchanged.
To get a sense of how it sounds, plug your ears. Now, say something. Notice how you can hear your own voice almost unchanged.
That’s how the mother’s voice sounds to the baby in the womb.
Albeit with a difference that the listening sensitivity for the bass is still higher because bass is heard the most. Hence, treble is heard, but not perceived as much.
So, like most other aspects, the mother has the highest influence over the baby’s auditory world.
Luckily for fathers, bass is heard in the womb and hence your baritone will make it. Remember that it is a noisy world in there, so go close and be loud. Let your baby know that you are there for her too.
Sounds after birth
The moment of birth changes everything. It’s as if a dark thunderstorm raging for months turned into a dry sunny day in a moment. It’s bright and very very quiet!
Also, the low pass filter is out.
Neurons that process the upper registers jump into action.
Did you know?
Within 7 months after birth, an infant can perceive sound across all pitches.
Rhythms of the womb
Pitch is only a part of sound and musical perception. Rhythm has an equally important role.
In the womb there are several rhythms for your baby. The mother’s heartbeat, breathing and speech, there’s a complete repertoire of rhythms in the womb. The heartbeat in particular is like an ever present metronome.
In addition, a baby can feel the mother’s emotions too.
So when a mother is anxious, her heartbeat increases. She also releases hormones that are passed on to the fetus. The baby receives these together and can sense the mom’s emotion.
A correlation between lower heartbeat and calmer moods has also been made.
Rhythms that can calm or excite a baby
So after birth, music with a BPM (Beats per minute) lower than the mother’s heartbeat has a calming effect on babies.
Likewise, music with a BPM higher than the mother’s heartbeat is perceived to be exciting.
Did you know?
Apart from being critical for music, perception of rhythm plays an important role in language development. Even if your baby can’t understand you at birth, it is already trained to recognize the phonetic patterns in your language.
Tips to improve your baby’s sense of music
With this “sound” base, let’s understand what you can do at each stage of your baby’s development. The goal is to stimulate your baby at the the level she perceives sounds.
- Talk to your baby. Read stories if you are out of ideas.
- Sing notes. Be careful to tune yourself using a guitar or a piano. You don’t want to teach wrong notes to your baby.
- Babies understand the relation between consonant notes more readily than dissonant ones. Hence do the more consonant notes more often in the early stages. The following notes are ideal to start with. (Note : These are recommendations for mothers. Fathers have to do it at an octave lower for best effect. A normal hum is ok, but a hum with ‘Tee’ or ’Pa’ sound is more effective. They they are more discernible and penetrate more. You can even use the classical names of the notes for humming : Do-Re-Mi-Fa-So-La-Ti-Do )
- If you get bored with the notes, you can sing songs. The rhythms of the song are more important than the pitch. So it may not help a lot for pitch training at this stage.
- Play music with simple rhythms and beats. Rock music with simple drums is ok too. But if you play Jazz, you are expecting too much.
- Keep talking. Conversations between the father and the mother will help even more during this phase.
- You can start singing more complex note patterns now. But pay attention to consonance. Introduce notes in the order below.
- Rhythm is still the most important component. Keep the music you play or sing simple.
Birth to 4 months: Beyond White noise
- The baby is out. It can hear more frequencies now. Feel free to sing at any pitch. Fathers, now’s your time. Finally, she can hear you clearly.
- The rules of consonance are still valid. Sing the same set of notes mentioned above in the same order, but you can explore higher octaves now.
- Classical music is proven to have calming effects. The “Mozart effect” may have been blown out of proportion, but it’s generally agreed that classical music can only have positive effects overall.
- Use white, pink and brown noise when needed to calm the baby.
- Pat your baby as per the rhythms of a song playing in the background. This helps them to associate rhythm with the beats of a song.
4 to 7 months
- The sharps and flats (black keys) on the piano can finally be explored now. Go full scale and all keys. Use a drone for setting the ambiance at a fixed note or a cycle of 2-3 notes. You may also use a mobile app to imitate a drone. Set the drone to the scale that you sing or to the scale of the musical instrument that you play.
- Classical music is good when the baby is asleep, but there is nothing wrong with playing your favorite genre. I have personally put my baby to sleep with Linkin Park’s Faint at times. Worked like magic!
- Noise is still pretty effective at calming your baby. But use it sparingly and at low volumes.
- Your baby might start to be able to sit. Take her in your lap, hold her hands and drum up along with a song using her hands (just imaginary drums, not real ones).
Here’s the notes’ repertoire I used for my children (in my voice :)).
Tips to help your baby sleep using music
Babies spend a majority of the time sleeping in the first few months. Unlike many other senses, audio perception is relatively alive even during sleep.
- Exposing your child to music not only helps preserve sleep, but also improves overall sleep quality. Also, music drowns any other sudden noises that may lead to a wake-up.
- Spend the time to make a curated list for your baby. The genre of music during the transition to sleep is not so critical. Use whatever works for your baby.
- Usually, simpler music with easy rhythms works better for putting a baby to sleep. Strong recurring patterns create a familiar environment and helps your baby feel secure.
- Try playing a song on repeat mode till your little one falls asleep. It’s highly effective.
- During sleep, calm music helps to regulate breathing, heart rate and the sleep cycles of the baby.
- Avoid sudden changes in volume, tempo and genre in your playlist.
- Here is a list of songs that I used for my little ones (Note : Classical songs have many renditions. Listen to the whole song before playing it, lest you wake your little monster..)-
Sleep playlists for your baby
Songs for transition into sleep.
- Bluebird – Alexis French
- Fur Elise – Use versions that have lower than 70 BPM – Beethoven
- One man’s dream – Yanni
- Minuet in G Major, WoO 10, No.2 – Beethoven
- 3 Gymnopedies: No.1 in D Major : Lent et douloureux – Satie
Songs during sleep.
- Waltz in F Minor, Op. 70 No.2 (Ed. J. Fontana) – Frederic Chopin
- Waltz in A-Flat Major, Op.69 No.1 – Frederic Chopin
- Waltz in C-Sharp, Op. 64 No.2 – Frederic Chopin
- Quintet in A Major for Clarinet and Strings, K.581: II. Larghetto – Beethoven
- Piano Concerto No.21 in C Major, K.467 “Elvira Madigan ”: II. Andante – Mozart
- Liszt: Schwanengesang, S.560 – No. 4 Ständchen – Franz Schubert
Happy nurture, chart buster!
- Consonance and dissonance. To truly appreciate consonance, read about Just Intonations. Simple ratios equate to higher consonance. Owing to practical difficulties, at some point in history, musicians world over switched to chromatic scales. The decision was practical but literally irrational!! Whole number ratios gave way to the irrational 12th root of two.
- Musical perception development in early years
- Interesting experiments on the perception of rhythm in babies.
- Pretty old, but comprehensive paper on sound perception inside the womb
- The symphony in the womb
- Effect of music on infants’ sleep
- Effect of music on preterm babies